18 de marzo de 2013

Knarr


Se dice en el post: Nordic Folkboat:

Entre 1.959 y 1.970: Debido a su versatilidad como un crucero de fin de semana y capacidad de competir, el folkboat prosperó en Suecia, Finlandia, Alemania, UK, Irlanda, en los países bálticos, en Australia y en la Bahía de San Francisco. Conspicuamente se ausentó de esta lista Noruega, la cual se enamoró del Knarr – un bonito velero de larga quilla que llegó en 1.943 – y rechazó el según cabe suponer al plebeyo Folkboat. Pero diferente a Knarr, el Nordic Folkboat inspirado en incontables diseños para cruceros pequeños y condiciones de navegar, los cuales navegaron a través de los  océanos y alrededor del mundo. Estas imitaciones en su mayoría construidas en fiberglass, pronto amenazaron superar el original que permanece inalterable durante más de 30 años y con una curva de crecimiento alcista.

Historia:

The Saga of the Knarr – by Morten Heldal Haugerud (ON 138)

NOTE: This article describes the 50 year period 1943-1993. The period up to day will follow later. Taken from the Norwegian KNARR Association webpage.

   La saga del Knarr por Morten Heldal Haugerud (ON 138)

NOTA: Este artículo describe el periodo de 50 años 1943 – 1993. Tomado de la página web de la Asociación noruega KNARR.



Before 1940
The Saga of the Knarr started when Willy H. Johannesen and Lars Walløe made contact with Erling L. Kristofersen, and asked him to design a new “Folkboat”. It should be an inexpensive boat for cruising and racing, Kristofersen was chosen because he had already designed fast boats.

 La saga del Knarr comenzó cuando Willy H. Johannesen and Lars Walløe contactaron con Erling L. Kristofersen y le preguntaron para diseñar un nuevo “folkboat”. Sería un bote no caro para crucero y regata, Kristofersen fue elegido porque él ya diseñó botes rápidos.

1943
Erling L. Kristofersen finished the design for “22 1/2 m2 Lestebåt”. Kristofersen had the idea of building the boat bottom up on a fixed frame, attaching the keel after having finished the hull. Bolting the keel to the hull is today quite normal, but at that time it was a kind of revolution. To reduce the need for crew, Kristofersen did not design the boat with a spinnaker, and because of the war it was impossible to get lead for the keel, it had to be made of iron.

 1943.-Erling L. Kristofersen finalize el diseño para “22 1/2 m2 Lestebåt”. Kristofersen tuvo la idea de construir el fondo de la embarcación en una cuaderna fija, colocando la quilla después de finalizar el casco. Unir la quilla a l casco es hoy bastante normal pero en aquel momento fue una revolución. Para reducir la tripulación, Kristofersen no diseñó la embarcación con un spinnaker y porque a causa de la guerra fue imposible obtener laminas para la quilla que se construía en hierro.

1944
The work on the prototype was started at Einar Iversens property at Grimsøy near Sarpsborg. He had also bought Ottar G. Larsens Boat Yard, which later on became Grimsøykilen Boat Yard, where a great number of Knarrs have been built. It was Iversen who initiated the idea of building the boat of planks with concave and convex edges, so that they fitted together at various angles. The time used for building the boat was thereby reduced dramatically. The first boat had a calculated prize of NOK 4,500 (about 2/3 of the price of a Dragon). The first boat was launched in the autumn of 1944.

During the war there were restrictions on boat building (and sailing). The Germans heard about the project, and to be able to continue Iversen had to promise to give away the first boat to the Germans. However, Iversen delayed this by claiming that the prototype had to many faults, so that another boat would have to be built for the Germans. A new boat with minor adjustments was built during the winter of 1944/45.

The war ended and the Germans did never get their yacht, and ON-1 was finished without any further delays in the spring of 1945. When the boat was presented at Dronningen in the autumn that year, many sailors were interested. But the reception was rather mixed, the lines were new and her freeboard higher than usual. Despite the skepticism, Willy H. Johansen was able to get enough people interested in the boat to receive a couple of orders.

   1944

El trabajo en el prototipo comenzó en Einar Iversens propiedad de Grimsøy cerca de Sarpsborg el tuvo también comprado Ottar G. Larsens Boat Yard que más tarde se convirtió en Grimsøykilen Boat Yard, donde fueron construidos un gran número de Knarrs. Fue Iversen quien inició la idea de construir  con planchas de extremos cóncavos y convexos, así que ellos llenaron juntos en varios ángulos El tiempo usado para construir el bote fue reducido drásticamente.. La primera embarcación tuvo un precio calculado de NOK 4,500 (aproximadamente 2/3 del precio de un Dragon)., fue botado en otoño de 1944.

Durante la guerra tuvieron restricciones en la construcción del bote y de la navegación. El corazón alemán acerca del proyecto, y la posibilidad de continuar, Iversen tuvo la promes de dar lejos el primer bote a los alemanes. Sin embargo, Iversen retrasó esto por reclamar que el protoripo tuvo varios fallos, asi que otro bote tendría que ser construido por los alemanes. Una nueva embarcación con menos ajustes se construyó durante el invierno de 1944/45.

La guerra finalizó y los alemanesnunca finalizaron su yate, y on-1 fue acabado sin retraso en la primavera de 1945. Cuando la embarcación fue presentada en  Dronningen en el otoño de ese año, muchos marinos se interesaron. Pero la recepción fue mezclada, las líneas fueron nuevasy su francobordo mas alto que lo usual. SE hizo el escepticismo, Willy H.Johansen hizo posible que bastante gente se interesara en la embarcación para recibir varios pedidos.

 

1946
The first boats were delivered.

1946

Las primeras embarcaciones fueron construidas.

 

1947
2 boats delivered. The first, ON-4 Troja 4 for Sverre Andreassen, is today the oldest Knarr. It was also available for IKC 1993. The price was now NOK 5,500–6,000, quite a lot of money at that time, but still less than other boats of the same size.

1947

2 embarcaciones construidas. La primera, ON-4 Troja 4 para Sverre Andreassen, es hoy el Knarr más antiguo, también estuvo disponible para IKC 1993. El precio fue ahora de 5500-60000 coronas noruegas, bastante más dinero que el actual, pero todavía menos que otras embarcaciones del mismo tamaño.

1948
This was the year of break-through for the boat, 12 boats were delivered. Grimsøykilen Boat Yard did not have capacity for so many boats, so Kilen Boat Yard in Kragerø was licensed to build the “22 1/2 m2 Lestebåt”.

A naming contest was announced. Gunnar F. Klingenberg won, and the Knarr was finally given a name. As for the Dragon the Knarrs name is taken from the Viking ships, a Knarr was a Merchant Ship. The replica Saga Siglar, which Ragnar Thorseth sailed to America for the Columbus anniversary, is also a Knarr.

1948

Este fue el año de la rotura de los pedidos, 12 embarcaciones fueron construidas Grimsøykilen Boat Yard  no tenía capacidad para construir más botes, así que Lilen Boat Yard en Kragerø, fue autorizado para contruir el “22 1/2 m2 Lestebåt”.

Un nombre contestado fue anunciado Gunnar F. Klingenberg ganador, y el Knarr finalmente recibió un nombre. Como para el Dragon, el nombre knarr fue tomado por los vikingos, un knarr era un barco mercante. La Saga Siglar replica, del que Ragnar Thorseth navegó a America para el aniversario de Columbus, es también un Knarr.

1949
The number of Knarrs were almost 40, and there were now Knarrs in most of the cities around the Oslofjord.

1949

El número de knarrs fueron casi 40, y tuvieron knarrs en la mayoría de las ciudades alrededor del fiordo de Oslo.

1951
Norsk Knarrklubb (The Norwegian Knarr Association) was founded on November 1st. The first Admiral was Carl Høegh. The number of Knarrs were this year 52, all delivered to Norway.

1953
The Knarr was introduced in San Francisco by Bjørn Iversen, the son of Einar Iversen, the first builder of the Knarr. Bjørn was studying at Stanford University, and Gordon Morison bought the first Knarr in San Francisco. Due to the Knarrs excellent handling of the strong breeze and choppy sea on the San Francisco Bay, it soon became very popular. It joined the company of Norwegian and Scandinavian designs as the IOD (International One Design) and the Folkboat.

*   1953

El Knarr fue introducido en San Francisco por Bjørn Iversen, hijo de Einar Iversen, el primer contructor del Knarr. Bjørn studio en la Universidad de Stanford, y Gordon Morison compró el primer Knarr en San Francisco. Debido a los Knarr tenían un excelente manejo con brisas fuertes y mar rizada en la bahía de San Francisco, pronto se hizo muy popular.  Junto a la compañía de diseños noruegos y escandinavos como el IOD(Diseño Internacional One) y el Folkboat.

There had been shown much interest in the Knarr both from Sweden and especially from Denmark. The possibility of building Knarrs in Denmark and Sweden was discussed with the Commodores of KDY (Royal Danish Yacht Club) and K.S.S.S (Royal Swedish Yacht Club).

The Knarr was approved as a National One Design Class in Denmark on November 6th.

   1954

El primer campeón noruego tuvo lugar en Hankø. Kristian Hansen fue el primer campeón.

Mostraron mucho interés en el knaar ambos desde Suecia y especialmente desde Dinamarca. La posibilidad de construir Knarr en Dinamarca y Suecia fue discutida con los Comodoros de KDY (Real Club de yates danés) y KSSS (Real Club de yates Sueco).

El Knarr fue aprobado como una clase de diseño nacional One en Dinamarca el 6 de Noviembre.

1955
On January 25th. the Danish Yacht Racing Union ordered a plug from Einar Iversen, so that Børresen Boat Yard in Vejle could build the first Danish Knarr.

The first Knarr built in Denmark, was launched on May 15th. It was then sold by lottery.

The first Danish Admiral was Erik Dugdale with Axel Madsen Mygdahl as secretary.

The Knarr was used in team regatta between Belgium and Norway with 3 teams from each country, the winner was Norway.

Thee Knarr was for the first time invited to participate in “H.K.H. Kronprinsens Serie Seilaser” in Oslo with 25 boats on the starting line. The Knarr has been invited every year since then.
   1955

El 25 de enero la Union de Regatas de yates danesa ordenó una conexión desde Einar Iversen, al astillero Børresen Boat Yard in Vejle para que construyera el primer knarr danés.

El primer knarr danés fue botado el 15 de Mayo. Y fue vendido por lotería.

The first Danish Admiral fueErik Dugdale con Axel Madsen Mygdahl como secretario.

ElKnarr fue usado como regatta por equipos entre Belgica y BNoruega con con tres equipos de cada país, el ganador fue Noruega.

Tres knarr fueron invitados por primera vez  a participar en “H.K.H. Kronprinsens Serie Seilaser” en Oslo con 25 embarcaciones en la línea de salida. El Knarr ha sido invitado cada año desde entonces.

1956
The Knarr Class raced on Øresund for the first time, four boats participated in the Øresund Week.
   1956

La clase Knarr regateó por peimera vez en on Øresund, participaron 4 embarcaciones en la semana on Øresund.

1957
There were now 10 Knarrs in Denmark. The first team regatta between Denmark and Norway was held in Oslo, Norway won.
   1957

Fueron 10 Knarrs en Dinamarca. El primer equipo de regatta entre Dinamarca y Noruegafueron held en Oslo, Noruega ganó.

1959
2 Knarrs were delivered to England.

75 boats with larger sails, rig and cabin (US version) were up to this year produced for the Lakes in USA.

Boats from Denmark and Norway were sold to San Francisco (with the original rigging).

The first 2 boats were delivered to Bergen.

2 knarrs fueron delivered a Inglaterra

1962
The first team race between East- and West-Norway was arranged, and has been an annual event since then.

1965
More than 300 Knarrs have been launched in Norway.

1966
The Royal Danish Yacht Club (KDY) celebrates its centenary. 35 Knarrs participated in the Centenary Regatta (6 from Norway, 1 from Sweden, and 1 from USA).

ON-65, Irina, with Georg v. Erpecom jr. sailed from Bergen to the Centenary Regatta in Copenhagen and then to Oslo. This was, at the time, the longest journey made by a Knarr, and he was awarded th Royal Norwegian Yacht Clubs Cruise Racing Trophy for the journey.

Knud Wibroe from USA, together with Knut E. Røsholm and Arne W. Kamfjord from Norway, discussed the possibility of having an annual International Knarr Championship.

1967
HRH Crown Princess Margrethe & HRH Prince Henrik of Denmark were given a Knarr as a wedding gift by KDY. HRH Prince Henrik later bought OD-71 and OD-121.

San Francisco Bay Knarr Association proposed by Knud Wibroe to have an International Knarr Championship. A committee in Norway out-lined the first rules for the Championship.

1968
The Deed of Trust for the International Knarr Championship was recognised by the national Knarr authorities in Denmark, Norway, and USA. The International Knarr Trophy was produced by Th. Martinsens Sølvarefabrikk in Tønsberg, Norway.

1969
The International Knarr Championship (IKC) was held for the first time (in San Francisco) by San Francisco Yacht Club, which celebrated its centenary. The late Robert M. York of Belvedere became the first International Champion.

1972
The wooden Knarr has become too expensive to build. The number of boats built by Børresen had decreased the last years and the plug at Grimsøykilen was falling apart. Bjørn Bakke and Knut Berge (from Bergen) discussed the possibility of having the Knarr built in fibre glass and Knut Berge was given the task of developing the idea.

Together with Kristian Hansen (Oslo) and Jørgen Skovsgård (Copenhagen) Knut Berge presented the ideas to Børresen in Vejle. Børresen had already been successful with the fibre glass Dragon. Børresen was willing to build the fibre glass Knarr eventhough it was not possible to obtain 20 orders for the fibre glass Knarr, which he initially wanted in order to start building.

A discussion about the rights and licences arose with Grimsøykilen Boat Yard. Einar Iversen was, to begin with, not interested in letting Børresen build in fibre glass. He claimed that Børresen only was licensed to build wooden boats. After some discussion he agreed that Norsk Knarrklubb was allowed to build fibre glass Knarrs at Børresen Boat Yard. The agreement was signed in January 1973.

IKC was held in Norway for the first time. Bergen Yacht Club celebrated its centenary by being the first Norwegian Club arranging the IKC.

1973
Grimsøykilen Boat Yard was sold to Sani Industri and a discussion about the rights and licences arose again. Because Børresen had been building Knarrs since 1955 he started the production of a fiber glass plug even if Sani Industri did not accept his rights to do so.

Børresen built a wooden boat weighing every part. By doing this he was able to calculate the correct weight distribution for the Knarr. This boat was used as a plug for the fiber glass forms. This wooden Knarr later became OD-66, one of the best Danish wooden Knarrs.

The weight of the fiber glass Knarr was controlled by weighing a number of older wooden Knarrs.

The first Danish fiber glass Knarr, OD-67, was delivered to Erling Sundø. The price was DKK 55,900.

1974
The first four fibre glass Knarrs in Norway were delivered to Bergen (ON-124, ON-125, ON-126 and ON-127).

The new big jib and the main sail sheeting to a post in the cockpit was approved by Norsk Knarrklubb after it had been tested in Denmark.

1975
The fiber glass Knarr was presented at the exhibition “Sjøen for Alle” in Oslo. The exhibition boat OD-75 was sold as the first fiber glass Knarr to Oslo and is today ON-128.

IKC was held in Oslo for the first time (by KNS). For the first time a Norwegian won the Trophy, Lars Solberg of Bergen became International Champion of that year.

1978
The International Knarr Class Rules were assembled in a new edition.

1981
Præstø on Sjælland entered the Knarr family (7 boats).

Børresen was building about 6–7 boats every year. Mainly for Denmark, but some were also delivered to San Francisco and Norway.

1983
KNS celebrated its centenary by having Regattas at Hankø in the Oslofjord. 29 Knarrs (including 7 from Denmark and 4 from Bergen) were again racing for Erling L. Kristofersen Memorial Trophy. The Trophy was won by HRH Prince Henrik of Denmark.

HRH King Olav V was presented a half model of the Knarr for his 80th. birthday.

1984
The number of Knarrs starting in the Norwegian Championship was 33, the largest number of starting boats in a Norwegian Championship.

1985
Norsk Knarrklubb bought all rights for the Knarr on February 7th. and was thereby, for the first time, in a position to licentiate Yards to build Knarrs.

A new edition of The International Knarr Class Rules with original drawings was issued.

1993
The Knarr celebrates its first 50 years and the 25th. International Knarr Championship was held in Oslo.

No other One Design Class has an unbroken series of Norwegian Championships over as many year as the Knarr — every year since the first in 1954. The Knarr can therefore be considered one of the most successful Norwegian Yachts ever designed.

What has made the Knarr into one of the most popular boats in Norway, Denmark and San Francisco over the last 50 years? The answer is, maybe, in the statement made by the Dane Bent Aarre:

 1993

Desde 1959 el Knarr se fue desarrollando y participando en eventos en Europa y América, se celebra el 50 aniversario de su construcción.
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